APA Referencing guide

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Business Law

Research guide for students enrolled in Business Legal classes.

Research guide for students enrolled in Business Legal classes.

  • Welcome!

  • How to…

    • I.D. Peer-Reviewed Articles

    • Evaluate Your Sources

    • Prevent Plagiarism

    • Brief a Case

  • Cite Right in APA!

    • Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book

  • Get Help!

  • More Business Guides

Cite your Sources!

publication manual of the apa

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010

Ask APA

Loading

APA by Format Type: Choose Below

  • Intro
  • Books
  • Articles
  • YouTube
  • .gov websites
  • Websites
  • eReaders

APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences.  As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citations

    This tutorial to show users how to structure and format their work recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.

  • VIDEO: APA Format and Citations: 6th Edition

    Published on Oct 30, 2009
    How to format research, term papers and essays with APA Sixth Edition Publication Manual [second printing]. A Word template pre-set in APA style can be downloaded from http://www.peakwriting.com/APA.docx

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:

 

Author, A. A. (year).  Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

 

Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized.  For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: 6th Ed
    by American Psychological Association Staff

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010
    ISBN: 9781433805592
    Publication Date: 2009

Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as ‘periodicals’.  There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style.  Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent.  Examples are taken from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.

 

  • APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    Here is a great guide on how to cite a YouTube video using the APA style.

Reference:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/incentives/ems/emsnps.pdf

 

In-text citation

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)

For items retrieved online, please include the website.  The examples below are general in nature.  Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future.  In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog .  

In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related.  The DOI should be included, if available.  For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.

One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing”  (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

Loading …

APA In-Text Citations

  • Quotes
  • Long Quotes
  • Paraphrasing

Here are a few notes on in-text citations from the Purdue OWL:

 

Quotations

All quotes will have reference to:

  • Author(s) OR organization as author
  • Year of publication OR (n.d.) if there is no date indicated
  • Page (p.) OR paragraph (para.) number
  • For quotes, all three must be present in the in-text citation
  • A complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper

 

EXAMPLES

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Reference

Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 October 2015,

from  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html

Block Quotes (over 40 words)

  • Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
  • Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
  • Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
  • Maintain double-spacing throughout.
  • The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

 

EXAMPLE

Jones’s (1998) study found the following, students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary, Paraphrase, & In Your Own Words

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work,

  • You only have to make reference to the author and year of publication
  • You do not have to include the page number in your in-text reference
  • All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

 

EXAMPLE

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Loading …

apa checks & balances

Great tools to check your citations.

  • Credo InfoLit Quiz: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Citations & Plagiarism


    by Melissa Del Castillo FIULIB


    Last Updated Sep 28, 2018

    6146 views this year
  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • Excelsior College: APA Checklist

    Once you review the different aspects of APA formatting, you may find that it takes you awhile to remember everything you need to do. Referring back to helpful resources here can help, but a checklist of the key components of APA can provide important reminders and support. You can check off each item in the list and save the file or just use the checklist as a reminder for yourself.

  • Walden College: APA Basics Checklist

    Use this APA Checklist to review your assignments, ensuring you have remembered all of APA’s rules.

  • << Previous: Brief a Case
  • Next: Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book >>

  • Welcome!

  • How to…

    • I.D. Peer-Reviewed Articles

    • Evaluate Your Sources

    • Prevent Plagiarism

    • Brief a Case

  • Cite Right in APA!

    • Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book

  • Get Help!

  • More Business Guides

APA by Format Type: Choose Below

  • Intro
  • Books
  • Articles
  • YouTube
  • .gov websites
  • Websites
  • eReaders

APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences.  As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citations

    This tutorial to show users how to structure and format their work recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.

  • VIDEO: APA Format and Citations: 6th Edition

    Published on Oct 30, 2009
    How to format research, term papers and essays with APA Sixth Edition Publication Manual [second printing]. A Word template pre-set in APA style can be downloaded from http://www.peakwriting.com/APA.docx

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:

 

Author, A. A. (year).  Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

 

Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized.  For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: 6th Ed
    by American Psychological Association Staff

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010
    ISBN: 9781433805592
    Publication Date: 2009

Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as ‘periodicals’.  There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style.  Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent.  Examples are taken from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.

 

  • APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    Here is a great guide on how to cite a YouTube video using the APA style.

Reference:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/incentives/ems/emsnps.pdf

 

In-text citation

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)

For items retrieved online, please include the website.  The examples below are general in nature.  Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future.  In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog .  

In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related.  The DOI should be included, if available.  For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.

One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing”  (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

Loading …

APA In-Text Citations

  • Quotes
  • Long Quotes
  • Paraphrasing

Here are a few notes on in-text citations from the Purdue OWL:

 

Quotations

All quotes will have reference to:

  • Author(s) OR organization as author
  • Year of publication OR (n.d.) if there is no date indicated
  • Page (p.) OR paragraph (para.) number
  • For quotes, all three must be present in the in-text citation
  • A complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper

 

EXAMPLES

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Reference

Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 October 2015,

from  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html

Block Quotes (over 40 words)

  • Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
  • Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
  • Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
  • Maintain double-spacing throughout.
  • The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

 

EXAMPLE

Jones’s (1998) study found the following, students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary, Paraphrase, & In Your Own Words

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work,

  • You only have to make reference to the author and year of publication
  • You do not have to include the page number in your in-text reference
  • All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

 

EXAMPLE

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Loading …

apa checks & balances

Great tools to check your citations.

  • Credo InfoLit Quiz: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Citations & Plagiarism


    by Melissa Del Castillo FIULIB


    Last Updated Sep 28, 2018

    6146 views this year
  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • Excelsior College: APA Checklist

    Once you review the different aspects of APA formatting, you may find that it takes you awhile to remember everything you need to do. Referring back to helpful resources here can help, but a checklist of the key components of APA can provide important reminders and support. You can check off each item in the list and save the file or just use the checklist as a reminder for yourself.

  • Walden College: APA Basics Checklist

    Use this APA Checklist to review your assignments, ensuring you have remembered all of APA’s rules.

  • << Previous: Brief a Case
  • Next: Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book >>

Cite your Sources!

publication manual of the apa

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010

Ask APA

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  • Last Updated: Oct 11, 2018 7:43 PM
  • URL: https://library.fiu.edu/businesslaw
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Skip to main content


  • LibGuides Home (current)
  • A-Z List
  • Help

  1. FIU Libraries

  2. FIU Libraries

  3. LibGuides

  4. Business Law

  5. Cite Right in APA!

Business Law

Research guide for students enrolled in Business Legal classes.

Research guide for students enrolled in Business Legal classes.

  • Welcome!

  • How to…

    • I.D. Peer-Reviewed Articles

    • Evaluate Your Sources

    • Prevent Plagiarism

    • Brief a Case

  • Cite Right in APA!

    • Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book

  • Get Help!

  • More Business Guides

Cite your Sources!

publication manual of the apa

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010

Ask APA

Loading

APA by Format Type: Choose Below

  • Intro
  • Books
  • Articles
  • YouTube
  • .gov websites
  • Websites
  • eReaders

APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences.  As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citations

    This tutorial to show users how to structure and format their work recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.

  • VIDEO: APA Format and Citations: 6th Edition

    Published on Oct 30, 2009
    How to format research, term papers and essays with APA Sixth Edition Publication Manual [second printing]. A Word template pre-set in APA style can be downloaded from http://www.peakwriting.com/APA.docx

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:

 

Author, A. A. (year).  Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

 

Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized.  For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: 6th Ed
    by American Psychological Association Staff

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010
    ISBN: 9781433805592
    Publication Date: 2009

Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as ‘periodicals’.  There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style.  Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent.  Examples are taken from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.

 

  • APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    Here is a great guide on how to cite a YouTube video using the APA style.

Reference:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/incentives/ems/emsnps.pdf

 

In-text citation

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)

For items retrieved online, please include the website.  The examples below are general in nature.  Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future.  In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog .  

In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related.  The DOI should be included, if available.  For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.

One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing”  (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

Loading …

APA In-Text Citations

  • Quotes
  • Long Quotes
  • Paraphrasing

Here are a few notes on in-text citations from the Purdue OWL:

 

Quotations

All quotes will have reference to:

  • Author(s) OR organization as author
  • Year of publication OR (n.d.) if there is no date indicated
  • Page (p.) OR paragraph (para.) number
  • For quotes, all three must be present in the in-text citation
  • A complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper

 

EXAMPLES

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Reference

Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 October 2015,

from  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html

Block Quotes (over 40 words)

  • Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
  • Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
  • Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
  • Maintain double-spacing throughout.
  • The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

 

EXAMPLE

Jones’s (1998) study found the following, students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary, Paraphrase, & In Your Own Words

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work,

  • You only have to make reference to the author and year of publication
  • You do not have to include the page number in your in-text reference
  • All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

 

EXAMPLE

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Loading …

apa checks & balances

Great tools to check your citations.

  • Credo InfoLit Quiz: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citation Style

    • Login required This link opens in a new window

  • Citations & Plagiarism


    by Melissa Del Castillo FIULIB


    Last Updated Sep 28, 2018

    6146 views this year
  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • Excelsior College: APA Checklist

    Once you review the different aspects of APA formatting, you may find that it takes you awhile to remember everything you need to do. Referring back to helpful resources here can help, but a checklist of the key components of APA can provide important reminders and support. You can check off each item in the list and save the file or just use the checklist as a reminder for yourself.

  • Walden College: APA Basics Checklist

    Use this APA Checklist to review your assignments, ensuring you have remembered all of APA’s rules.

  • << Previous: Brief a Case
  • Next: Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book >>

  • Welcome!

  • How to…

    • I.D. Peer-Reviewed Articles

    • Evaluate Your Sources

    • Prevent Plagiarism

    • Brief a Case

  • Cite Right in APA!

    • Legal Abbreviations & Blue Book

  • Get Help!

  • More Business Guides

APA by Format Type: Choose Below

  • Intro
  • Books
  • Articles
  • YouTube
  • .gov websites
  • Websites
  • eReaders

APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences.  As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.

  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citations

    This tutorial to show users how to structure and format their work recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.

  • VIDEO: APA Format and Citations: 6th Edition

    Published on Oct 30, 2009
    How to format research, term papers and essays with APA Sixth Edition Publication Manual [second printing]. A Word template pre-set in APA style can be downloaded from http://www.peakwriting.com/APA.docx

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:

 

Author, A. A. (year).  Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work.  Location: Publisher.

 

Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized.  For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: 6th Ed
    by American Psychological Association Staff

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010
    ISBN: 9781433805592
    Publication Date: 2009

Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as ‘periodicals’.  There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style.  Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent.  Examples are taken from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.

 

  • APA Style: How to Create a Reference for a YouTube Video

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    Here is a great guide on how to cite a YouTube video using the APA style.

Reference:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/incentives/ems/emsnps.pdf

 

In-text citation

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)

For items retrieved online, please include the website.  The examples below are general in nature.  Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future.  In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog .  

In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related.  The DOI should be included, if available.  For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.

One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing”  (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

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APA In-Text Citations

  • Quotes
  • Long Quotes
  • Paraphrasing

Here are a few notes on in-text citations from the Purdue OWL:

 

Quotations

All quotes will have reference to:

  • Author(s) OR organization as author
  • Year of publication OR (n.d.) if there is no date indicated
  • Page (p.) OR paragraph (para.) number
  • For quotes, all three must be present in the in-text citation
  • A complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper

 

EXAMPLES

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

Reference

Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 October 2015,

from  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html

Block Quotes (over 40 words)

  • Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
  • Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
  • Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
  • Maintain double-spacing throughout.
  • The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

 

EXAMPLE

Jones’s (1998) study found the following, students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary, Paraphrase, & In Your Own Words

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work,

  • You only have to make reference to the author and year of publication
  • You do not have to include the page number in your in-text reference
  • All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

 

EXAMPLE

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

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apa checks & balances

Great tools to check your citations.

  • Credo InfoLit Quiz: APA Citation Style

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  • Credo InfoLit Tutorial: APA Citation Style

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  • Citations & Plagiarism


    by Melissa Del Castillo FIULIB


    Last Updated Sep 28, 2018

    6146 views this year
  • The Purdue OWL: APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  • APA Style

    • Internet link, free resource This link opens in a new window
    The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. It spotlights the ideas being presented, not the manner of presentation. Manuscript structure, word choice, punctuation, graphics, and references are all chosen to move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as punctuation and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings citation of references, and presentation of statistics.

  • Excelsior College: APA Checklist

    Once you review the different aspects of APA formatting, you may find that it takes you awhile to remember everything you need to do. Referring back to helpful resources here can help, but a checklist of the key components of APA can provide important reminders and support. You can check off each item in the list and save the file or just use the checklist as a reminder for yourself.

  • Walden College: APA Basics Checklist

    Use this APA Checklist to review your assignments, ensuring you have remembered all of APA’s rules.

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publication manual of the apa

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines.




  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

    Call Number: BF76.7.P83 2010

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