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Culture of Russia
Russian culture – overview
Culture of Russia is the culture of the Russian people, other peoples and nationalities of Russia and the states that preceded the present Russian Federation.
The main stages in the history of culture in Russia:
- Ancient Rus – culture in the period of the Old Russian state from the moment of its formation to the Mongol invasion (862-1240),
- Moscow Rus (the 13th-17th centuries),
- The Russian Empire (the 18th-early 20th centuries),
- The USSR,
- The Russian Federation.
Russian Culture latest news and posts from our blog:
25 March, 2018 / Church of Our Lady of Vladimir in Podporozhye .
11 March, 2018 / Wooden Church of the Ascension in Piyala .
23 February, 2018 / Photorealistic Paintings of Ivan Shishkin .
22 December, 2017 / Educating Readers in the USSR in 1926-1929 .
21 June, 2017 / Museum of Wooden Architecture in Suzdal .
News, notes and thoughts:
13 January, 2015 / “Leviathan”, a Russian drama film directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev, won the Golden Globe for best foreign language film. It happened for the first time in almost fifty years! Probably, it can even win an Oscar in the same category. Good luck to the creators of this film!
29 May, 2012 / 26-year-old violinist from St. Petersburg, Andrey Baranov won the prestigious international contest of young musicians named after Queen Elizabeth, which took place in Brussels. The Queen Elizabeth Competition is one of the largest and most prestigious music competitions in the world.
20 May, 2012 / This year, the museum insomnia covered the whole Russia – from Kaliningrad to Vladivostok. People were standing in lines for over an hour to see specially prepared exhibitions. In Moscow the event involved about half a million people. According to surveys, one in ten Russians spent this night at the museum. For the first time sixteen Moscow theaters opened their doors at night too.
Russian and other languages
The most common language in Russia is the Russian language. However, the number of speakers of eight more languages exceeds one million people each. Republics as parts of the Russian Federation can have their own state languages and, as a rule, they use this right.
Despite the efforts to preserve and develop local languages, there is still a trend for a linguistic shift, when in fact the native language of non-Russian citizens is Russian, while a superficial knowledge of the mother language (the language of one’s ethnic group) becomes nothing more than a marker of ethnicity.
Russian literature reflected not only aesthetic, moral and spiritual values and ideas. According to leading Russian thinkers, literature has also become the philosophy of Russia.
Until the 18th century, secular literature in Russia practically did not exist. There are several monuments of ancient Russian literature of religious or chronicle character: The Tale of Bygone Years, The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, The Prayer of Daniel the Exile, The Life of Alexander Nevsky. Folk art of that period is represented by fairy tales.
In the 18th century, a lot of secular writers and poets appeared in Russia: poets Vasily Trediakovsky, Antioch Cantemir, Gabriel Derzhavin, Mikhail Lomonosov; writers Nikolai Karamzin, Alexander Radishchev; playwrights Alexander Sumarokov and Denis Fonvizin.
The most famous poets of Russia are Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Aleksandr Blok, Sergey Yesenin, Anna Akhmatova, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and many others.
The most famous writers of Russia are Fedor Dostoevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov, Ivan Turgenev, Anton Chekhov, and many others.
The first realistic portraits appear in Russia in the 17th century. In the middle – the end of the 18th century, such painters as Levitsky and Borovikovsky appeared in Russia. Outstanding artists of the first half of the 19th century: Kiprensky, Bryullov, Ivanov.
In the second half of the 19th century, the creative association of Russian artists “Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions” (“Peredvizhniki”) was founded, which included such great artists as Vasnetsov, Kramskoy, Shishkin, Kuindzhi, Surikov, Repin, Savrasov.
At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, the association “World of Art” operated. Its members or artists close to the movement were Mikhail Vrubel, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Nikolai Roerich, Isaak Levitan.
In the late 19th – early 20th century, Russia became one of the centers of avant-garde art: Vasily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Marc Chagall, Pavel Filonov.
Today, there are a lot of art museums and galleries in Russia. The most famous are the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, the State Hermitage and the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg.
Other features of Russian culture
Russian classical music is known for the heritage of such great composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Mikhail Glinka, Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai Andreevich, the commonwealth of the composers “The Mighty Bunch”, Sergei Rachmaninov, Igor Stravinsky. The most known Soviet composers are Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Aram Khachaturian, Alfred Schnittke.
Russian theater art is one of the most promising in the world. In Russia, there are theaters with world fame, such as the Mariinsky Theater, the Bolshoi and Maly theaters.
In Russia, circus art is developed and popular. Among the famous circus performers are clowns Yuri Nikulin, Oleg Popov; illusionists Emil Kio and Igor Kio, trainers Vladimir Durov, brothers Edgard and Askold Zapashnye.
Movies produced in Russia and the predecessor countries are laureates of major international film festivals such as Berlin, Cannes, Venice, Moscow.
Soviet animation is known all over the world. At the most famous studios of the USSR and Russia (Soyuzmultfilm, Tsentrnauchfilm, Kievnauchfilm) thousands of cartoons were filmed. In 2003, in Tokyo, the cartoon “Hedgehog in the Fog” by Yuri Norshtein was recognized as the best cartoon of all time.
We should also mention such a symbol of Russian culture as “matryoshka” – a Russian wooden toy in the form of a painted doll, inside which there are similar dolls of smaller size.
The cuisine of Russia, like the culture of Russia, is a two-part entity. The first and most significant part of it – Russian cuisine, based on the Slavic traditions, as well as traditions borrowed from other nations that eventually joined the Russian state.
The second part of the cuisine of Russia refers to the national traditions of peoples and nationalities living in the country. The cuisine of each people has its own unique dishes and methods of their preparation, based on local products and made with the help of original kitchen utensils.
The most famous dishes of the cuisine of Russia are borscht, vinaigrette, pies, pancakes, cabbage soup, kvas, mors, and others.
The questions of our visitors
As it turned out this is a very interesting question! After a little investigation, I have found out that this music piece is part of the soundtrack from the movie “The Unforgettable Year of 1919” (1952, Shostakovich was the composer of the movie). The movie is about the Civil War in Russia and the defense of Petrograd (St. Petersburg).
In the list of music tracks this piece of music is called “The Assault on the Red Hill” and sometimes it is mentioned as “The Assault on Beautiful Gorky”. It is the wrong translation of the original Russian name because the word “Krasniy” was translated not as Red but as Beautiful (there are some cases when it is correct but not in this one) and the second word “Gorka” meaning “hill” was not translated and remained almost the same like “Gorky”. It looks like a very interesting story with all these wrong translations.
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Russian Customs and Traditions
Dmitry Paranyushkin (on 27 Aug 2018)
Below we tried to list some common traits of the Russian character and list some things that Russians love and hate. If you are lucky enough to meet a person whose character incorporates all of the items from the list below, we can assure you that this person possesses the pure Russian spirit and should be treated with high respect. If you decide to become a Russian, you can use the list below as guidelines.
• We are a free nation. Here we despise all the rules. It’s an honor for our drivers to move on the red light or to bother other drivers and scorn pedestrians.
• We believe in the crudes and the Cosmos. It’s either utopia or bare knuckles, raw materials or highly sophisticated systems. Those who gave themselves up to the middle class dreams are the lost generation.
• We are not rational, we are irrational. Do not try to reason with us, because it will not work. We believe in chaos, serendipity, and adaptation. Our space missions are baptised by Russian Orthodox Church and even though we are very good in maths, we are certain that to do the impossible you need to believe in it, even if against all the odds…
• … and most of us are very proud. Don’t talk to us about our vices, we won’t listen anyway. And don’t dare to critisize the way our country is — Russia is the best place and we will prove it to the whole world very soon.
• We are a volatile mix – Western conscious and Asian sunconscious – you see, for hundreds of years Russia has been mixed, populations have been moved thousands of kilometers around, so we influenced each other to the extent that it does not even make sense. Still, in all that mess we find a unique sense of aesthetics, which is unified by our stregth, heritage and belief in the supernatural powers of Cosmos.
• Some of us are quite emotional, but somehow it’s all kept inside most of the time. We may seem a bit cold and too much to ourselves at first, but when you get to know us better, we’re like a volcanoe.
• We don’t feel easy about talking to strangers on the street, but if you start conversation saying that you’re from another country or ask for some help, there’s a good chance we will be very open, because we are naturally curious about foreigners.
• Some of us think that foreigners are bloody rich; so if we spot a foreigner, we try to make some money on him, because we still have this communist idea that everybody should be equal.
• Women and old women are very respected here. It’s considered polite if while being in the metro and seeing a woman or an old woman coming in and there’re no free seats, man offers her his seat.
• Beware of the babushkas (old women). They are active, pushy and very proud of themselves, so if you do something not the way they think you should’ve done, better disappear.
• When you are invited to the party bring something with you – beer is usually accepted with pleasure.
• Men should be strong and assertive and women should be smart and beautiful. That’s just one of our stereotypes.
• No, Russians are not racists. We were grown up in the world, where everybody is equal and where the friendship of nations is an important part of our agenda. If you notice one of us staring occasionally at a black person, it’s just because we are curious — there’s not many black people in Russia… The only word of warning is about older people, who are sometimes too much patriotic, so be careful: don’t offend their feelings.
• Yes, we love vodka, but we’re not alcoholics. Despite what some people think, Russians are not drunkards, they just have a special resistance to alchohol, that’s why they can drink so much. And we actually get our strength from it and it warms us during the cold winters. By the way, if you drink with us, you’ll have to drink as much as we do, or we will be offended.
• Russians are weird. We think that a sudden change from communism to capitalism has something to do with it, but this topic deserves a more thorough exploration. The only smart explanation that can be proposed here is that some of us jumped too deep into capitalist world, while some stayed too far behind.
• Russians are hooligans. It’s not because we’re bad – we just like everything extraordinary. But too often we don’t express this feeling enough, so when it comes out, it’s like a volcanoe. That’s why you hear our tourists singing folk songs at 3am and that’s why we make a revolution every 80 years.
• We believe in magnetism. The thing is, that every so often the sun sends some electro-magnetic signals and this affects the whole course of events on the earth, including our mood and feelings. So, if you see two housewives discussing how bad their day went because of the electro-magnetic storm that happened in the afternoon – don’t think they are adepts of some sort of new age philosophy, it’s completely normal here.
• Most of us know a few words in English, but we are too shy to speak – no practice, you see… However, you will be surprised at how many things are written in English on the streets: it is used to show a shop or a cafe, to advertise a new product, and there’s a lot of foreign goods. Also, almost more than a half of Russian products have their ingredients listed in English.
Russians learn English at school, and many people can understand the basics, but are shy to speak to a stranger. We estimate about every one out of five Moscovitans can speak English well enough, and there’s a higher chance among younger people.
• We like all things fancy. But our understanding of it is very original. You will often see men in suits or tucked-in shirts and office trousers (even in clubs on Friday night), while women prefer noticeable and sexy outfits. The colors for men are usually dark or grey, while women like light and white colors. This is a generalization and of course you’ll see a lot of different people and outfits.
If you want to visit clubs, they have this thing called “dress code” where you might not be allowed because you wear Nike sneakers, old khakis or a fleece coat. However, the rules are more lax for foreigners, so if unsure about your appearance just speak English while you’re passing the club’s entrance, and you’re guaranteed to get in.
• We express what we feel, but we’re not extrovert. We shout in public and we kiss in public. It’s acceptable to show affection in public (look at how many kissing couples there are on the long escalators in Moscow metro!) but extrovert behaviour may be resisted. You won’t see a lot of people sitting in public places with their legs stretched or crossed (in an American way) and Russians do not gesticulate much when they are talking.
• Most Russians feel a bit strange about gays and lesbians, but prefer not to talk or express their feelings about it. There is however, quite a large gay & lesbian community in Moscow and St. Petersburg and specialized websites have thousands and thousands of profiles featuring gorgeous queer men and women.
• Smoking is a national sport, but many people understand it’s not good for health and will always agree to turn off their cigarette if it bothers you.
Many people have a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle and have a daily morning exercise routine or run in the park.
• We believe that if you are a vegeterian, chances are you are one of those Hare Krishna guys or you have problems with digestion. (However, we should say that the creators of this site were vegetarian for two years… until we traveled to Siberia and were presented with the choice of either making a good travel guide or not eating the meat that was offered).
What else is uniquely Russian? Leave your comments and suggestions below!
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