polio essay

Support Aeon

‘Worldly and thought-provoking, there’s nothing on the internet quite like Aeon.’

Freddie W, USA, Friend of Aeon

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview.
But we can’t do it without you.

Give now

Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview. Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking.

No ads, no paywall, no clickbait – just thought-provoking ideas from the world’s leading thinkers, free to all. But we can’t do it without you.

Give now


Essay/

Epidemiology

An Israeli child receives a polio vaccine in the southern city of Be’er Sheva August 5, 2013. Photo by Amir Cohen/Reuters

Polio whack-a-mole

The great allies of infectious diseases are no longer poverty, nor dirt, but the global anti-vaccination movement

Keren Landsman

An Israeli child receives a polio vaccine in the southern city of Be’er Sheva August 5, 2013. Photo by Amir Cohen/Reuters

Keren Landsman

is an Israeli physician specialising in epidemiology and public health. She writes science fiction and the Hebrew blog ‘End of the world’.

2,600 words

Edited by
Pam Weintraub

Syndicate this Essay

Polio should have been eradicated long ago, at least in the developed world. After all, we’ve had a good, efficient vaccine for 60 years. So why is polio still here? And what is it doing in my country?

Israel is the original start-up nation, powered by high-tech and science, with some of the most sophisticated medical research in the world. We have come a long way from the 1950s, when polio was still with us and the signature experience was living on a Kibbutz. We are a modern, wired nation, but we forgot one thing: we still live in the Middle East. We have great weather, plenty of sunshine, lovely beaches, and two relatively nearby countries – Pakistan and Afghanistan – where the wild polio virus still roams free.

Shortly before polio returned to Israel, it hit the sewers of Egypt, our neighbour to the south, in December 2012. Egypt, like Israel, already vaccinated widely – so someone from Pakistan must have entered Egypt, used a toilet, and excreted polio into the sewer system around Cairo, probably infecting some Egyptians along the way. Egyptian physicians could find no cases of polio paralysis, the most devastating outcome of the disease, and that made sense: 95 per cent of people infected with polio show no symptoms and never become sick. But Egypt knew paralysis would be next if the virus was allowed to spread. So Egypt fought back. A nationwide campaign was initiated, and more than 14 million Egyptian children were vaccinated against polio. Within a month, the Egyptians had vanquished polio from its sewers and its country, yet again.

But that didn’t stop the polio virus from migrating, to us. Pakistan and Israel don’t share a border, but travel between Egypt and Israel is a common affair. During the month it took Egypt to stop the spread of polio, someone from Egypt must have travelled to Israel, bringing polio with them.

That must explain why, on 9 April 2013, our nationwide monitoring team isolated wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) – genetically related to the polio from Pakistan and Egypt – from sewage samples taken in Rahat, a city in southern Israel. Immunisation levels in Rahat, at 94 per cent, were good but not perfect. So the Israel Ministry of Health initiated a catch-up programme in the area where the samples were collected, finding the unprotected and inoculating them with the standard polio vaccine – IVP, or inactivated polio vaccine. That product, injected through the skin, is a totally dead version of the polio virus, and cannot cause the disease.

But it was too little, too late. A few days later we found polio virus in the sewers of Be’er Sheva, a city of some 200,000 people, about 20 km south of Rahat. Our national monitors responded by increasing sewer surveillance and scrutinising the population for signs of active illness, including paralysis and meningitis, a swelling of the lining of the brain.

I was, at the time, an intern in public health at the Carmel Medical Center, in a suburb of Haifa, and I was pretty excited – it’s not every day we have a forgotten epidemic on our hands. Perhaps I was cavalier, but only because I felt sure we would contain the epidemic in a month without incident, just like the Egyptians.

It was hard to tear myself away for a long-planned family vacation to the UK while this uproar was going on. But we had a great trip, and my two kids loved both the country and the fact that their mother stopped talking about polio all day.

I expected to return to work at the hospital, business as usual, problem solved. But while we were away, polio had spread through the nation’s sewer system and Israel had spiralled into panic mode.

It was terrifying. Poliomyelitis has been with us for thousands of years, at least since the days of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs. Back then, the disease was truly rare. That’s because people were exposed to poliovirus (which spreads through faeces) as infants, and built immunity against it from the start. But with improvements in hygiene over the centuries, encounters with the virus were delayed. Without early resistance, we became more vulnerable, and a scarce disease became an epidemic.

By the first half of the 20th century, with dramatic improvements in hygiene, the ravages of polio had become well-known: infection provoked a fever, sore throat, sometimes a stiff neck. Then the terror: a so-called ‘flaccid’ paralysis, caused by lack of muscle tone, starting from the feet and progressing up, as patients became unable to walk, sit erect and, finally, breathe.

Those patients were put in ‘iron lungs’, a machine that pulls the chest wall up and down, compensating for the paralysed diaphragm and chest muscles. That was the only way they could survive. Sick children had to stay in the iron lungs until the paralysis withdrew and their muscles returned to the normal strength. For some children, it meant just a few painful months. For others, it meant staying in those machines for the rest of their lives.

Then two people saved the world – the American virologists Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin. In the 1950s, they developed two different vaccines against polio, both efficient, both pretty safe, and both with the potential to prevent future epidemics. First, Salk invented IPV, the inactivated polio vaccine, made from dead virus. It could never cause the disease itself, but because it was injected into the muscles, it had one slight drawback: it was metabolised before reaching the gut, and thus recipients exposed to polio could harbour the virus in their intestines without ever getting sick. Such carriers could still pass on polio, through their faeces, to other carriers, and cause the disease in anyone who was not vaccinated.

Within two months, there were 15 new paralytic cases in Israel – the elderly, the immune-compromised, the already sick

Given that risk, by 1961, much of the developed world including Israel and the US switched to Sabin’s OPV, or oral polio vaccine. OPV was a living virus, weakened in the lab so it would not cause disease. Yet OPV wasn’t perfect, either. That weakened virus could still paralyse one in every 2.7 million children given the vaccine. It was better than the statistics of 1 in 200 unvaccinated children exposed to the wild virus, but still a slight risk. This type of polio disease was called vaccine-associated polio paralysis, or VAPP.

In countries that vaccinated, these life-saving but imperfect vaccines set the stage for polio’s ebbs, flows and outright outbreaks for years. It was possible to use only IVP, only OVP, or a combination of the two, with strategies varying around the world. It came home to roost in Israel in 1988, after the Ministry of Health decided to halt use of the live vaccine (and risk of dreaded VAPP) in two northern districts – Hadera and Ramla, near the city of Haifa. This group of children received only IPV, the killed vaccine, and they were well-protected against polio, though without gut immunity. Yet the switch had been a big mistake. Within two months, there were 15 new paralytic cases in Israel consisting of the most vulnerable targets – the elderly, the immune-compromised, the already sick.

Analysing the situation, the Israeli government looked at the global data collected by the World Health Organization: it turned out that in nations at risk, a combination of the two vaccines could work best. A single, previous IPV shot made of dead virus could protect against the spread of vaccine-associated polio from the live vaccine. The live vaccine, meanwhile, would prevent the virus from taking root in the gut, where it might spread out to infect the vulnerable and exposed.

So in 1990, Israel initiated a new vaccination programme – every child first received IPV, injected and dead. Then, only afterwards, they received OPV, the living oral vaccine that passed through the gut. For 15 years we saw no sign of polio in Israel – not even in the sewers. With polio seemingly gone, we followed the lead of the US in 2005 and once more pulled OPV, eliminating even a minuscule risk of VAPP.

By 2013, it was as if we had taken a time machine back to 1988 – only now, instead of just two districts, children age nine and under from all over Israel lacked gut immunity. With polio entering the country from countries around the Middle East, these kids could become carriers, spreading the virus to the unvaccinated and the immune-compromised alike, without ever getting sick themselves.

Just as before, such children endangered everyone with whom they came into contact. We found the polio that they carried in sewers all over Israel, and it was only a matter of time before one of them infected a vulnerable neighbour or relative – elderly grandparents; HIV patients; transplant or autoimmune patients on immune-suppressants; perhaps babies who hadn’t yet been vaccinated or developed antibodies. The government determined that a supplementary dose of OPV for carrier children was the only way out.

The vaccination campaign began on 5 August 2013, and Facebook exploded with complaints over the sacrifice that meant: totally healthy children were to receive the live vaccine, and parents were livid.

Fanning the flames of anger and fear and sabotaging our campaign was anti-vaccine propaganda coming from around the world, especially from the US. It’s amazing that this uneducated movement would descend on Israel in the middle of our crisis, convincing our population to turn OPV down. They doubted OPV efficiency and safety. They questioned the motives of the Israeli government and, alarmingly, they dismissed the existence of polio as an infectious disease.

We had to convince people with healthy children to vaccinate them again, not for their own safety, but for the public good

Now the war to stop polio was being fought on two fronts – vaccines and words. The vaccines did their part. Children who took those OPV drops built their gut immunity against polio and were no longer at risk of becoming walking biological weapons. If a child was already a polio carrier, the OPV wouldn’t help, but it wouldn’t harm him or her either. If the kid wasn’t a carrier, the OPV would make sure he or she would never become one.

But that wasn’t enough. We had to convince people with healthy children to vaccinate them again, not for their own safety, but for the public good. As a student of public health and a blogger with a social media presence, I took to the internet, especially Facebook, to fend off the anti-vaxxers, answer these questions, and explain the facts. It was such an all-consuming job that my kids and friends didn’t get a chance to see me for the next two months.

When one question was answered, another followed, and when all questions were answered, vaccine sceptics went back to square one and started the whole discussion again.

In fact, I explained to my online audience, for those not receiving the dead vaccine first, OVP did bring a small risk of VAPP – but that wasn’t the situation now. Everyone getting OPV had gotten IPV first.

I must be a part of the ‘Big Pharma’ industry if I thought polio was a dangerous disease, they said, or just a fool

Every time I set the record straight, pushback emerged. But after a while, I found a whole community of helpers by my side, waging the battle at the online front. Israeli doctors, science bloggers, the sceptics community and scientists all joined the explanatory effort. The data about the vaccine was available and most of us had lots of experience at explaining science in simple terms.

For months, the firestorm raged.

‘Since no one is sick, why should we vaccinate?’ asked the anti-vaxxers.

‘Why do you want to see someone with polio paralysis?’ asked the pro-vaccines community.

‘Why should I put my child at risk?’ asked a parent.

‘You’re not putting your child at risk,’ responded the pro-vaccines groups. ‘Getting OPV after IPV is completely safe.’

Pro-vaccine parents published pictures of their kids receiving OPV in the nurses’ clinic to prove their point.

As my online presence increased, I was personally targeted by anti-vaccine activists. They questioned my professionalism as well as my personal integrity. I must be a part of the ‘Big Pharma’ industry if I thought polio was a dangerous disease, they said, or just a fool.

As long as the accusations stayed virtual, it was all right, but I was terrified that someone might find out where I lived and attack my family. I went offline for a few days. Luckily for me, by that time my pro-vaccine colleagues were deftly handling the onslaught. They kept on the whole time I was gone. After I came back, we started a vacation rotation. Each time someone else went offline, others stayed on to fight the fight on Facebook, convincing parents to vaccinate their kids.

Every day during those two hard months, there was a different obstacle to tackle. One day a mother claimed her little girl had become paralysed half an hour after receiving OPV. Within minutes, the story spread through the web. Another two hours passed before someone reported the real story: the child fell asleep outside the doctor’s office, wet herself in her sleep and, when she woke up, her feet felt numb. The explanation was mundane and didn’t fit the anti-vaxxers’ agenda. The pro-vaccine group had to spread the rest of the story wherever they could.

At least I wasn’t the vaccine ‘poster girl’ anymore; there were many other people whose reputation was dragged through the mud by the anti-vaxxers along with mine. I made many new friends and, as the saying goes, a sorrow shared is a sorrow halved.

By October 2013, Israel’s official national campaign was over. The virus was still around, but more than 60 per cent of children in Israel had received OPV. It wasn’t a perfect score, but it was enough to turn the tide. By November 2013, Israel’s sewage samples started to come back negative for polio.

And in January 2014 we had a victory on the ground – a new committee convened and, after reviewing the evidence, decided to reintroduce OPV into Israel’s vaccination schedule for good.

I know this vaccine is alive, but I am not afraid. Data from around the world and from Israel tells me that OPV given after IPV is safe and effective. I know that VAPP is no longer a risk, and that the protection against polio is optimal.

We won the fight against polio in Israel but we are losing it in the rest of the world. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria still have polio, and they are still exporting it to other countries. Syria had 22 paralytic polio cases in the wake of the civil war and the breakdown of their health system. Polio exported from Nigeria has reached the Horn of Africa, and more than 190 children were diagnosed with polio paralysis in 2013.

My parents gave me a world without smallpox – I wanted to give my children a world without polio but, beyond the borders of our little country, polio is back.

Keren Landsman

is an Israeli physician specialising in epidemiology and public health. She writes science fiction and the Hebrew blog ‘End of the world’.

Syndicate this Essay
aeon.co

Get Aeon straight
to your inbox

Join our newsletter

Aeon is not-for-profit
and free for everyone

Make a donation


Idea/

Mental Health

Psychotherapy is not harmless: on the side effects of CBT

Christian Jarrett



Video/

Old Age & Death

Laughs, heartache and the winding road: life stories aboard a community bus in rural Wales

16 minutes


Essay/

Fertility, Pregnancy & Childbirth

The macho sperm myth

The idea that millions of sperm are on an Olympian race to reach the egg is yet another male fantasy of human reproduction

Robert D Martin



Video/

Mind & Body

Moved by my father: a hallucinatory animated meditation on the body in motion

9 minutes


Essay/

Illness & Disease

Chronic

For big pharma, the perfect patient is wealthy, permanently ill and a daily pill-popper. Will medicine ever recover?

Clayton Dalton


Idea/

Health Policy & Economics

How the marvel of electric light became a global blight to health

Richard G ‘Bugs’ Stevens


Sign Up
Sign In

  • Sign Up
  • Sign In

Polio Virus Essay

781 words – 3 pages

Polio Virus

Introduction

The polio virus which causes poliomyelitis in humans is an enterovirus which belongs to the picornavirus (small, RNA) family. Polio virus is rapid, acid-resistant, stable, highly tissue specific and consists of a single-stranded, positive RNA. Polio virus is able to reside in the throat or intestinal tract of humans. Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease which has three strains, poliovirus 1 (PV1), PV2 and PV3. Polio virus, although rare in developed countries, can be found in many under-developed countries due to the uncommonness of vaccinations there. Polio is known as a disease of development. The oldest known record of polio is in an Egyptian stone engraving of a young priest from 1350 B.C. with a withered leg, characteristic of a polio survivor. Loeffler and Frosch were the first individuals to see polio in 1898. The largest US epidemic was in 1916 in New York City.

Encounter and Entry

The polio virus affects humans by the fecal-oral route. A given individual ingests water or food contaminated with polio virus, the virus infects the individual, the individual passes the virus in their feces, the virus is in the sewage which enters a watershed where another individual ingests the water and consequently the virus. Polio virus can also spread by person-to-person contact, especially in young children. After entering the host, polio virus travels down the digestive tract to the small intestine where it replicates itself in the B-cells and T-cells of the gut mucosa lining the intestine.

Spread and Replication

Poliovirus binds to a specific cell surface protein, polio virus receptor (PVR). This protein is an immunoglobin which contains three loops, Ig domains. Polio binds at loop one. After binding, a conformational change, or alteration, in the virus capsid occurs; this is thought to prepare the virus for uncoating (extracellularly). Receptor-mediated endocytosis is thought to take the receptor into the cell. Polio virus is tissue tropic, meaning it replicates only in specific tissue types, generally lymphoid tissue in the pharynx and intestine. After uncoating, polio virus, which is an RNA virus, takes a single RNA molecule in its protective capsid. This RNA can be converted directly to a protein in the cytoplasm. The virus must then replicate its RNA using viral RNA-directed RNA polymerase. After replication of its own RNA, the virus must package the new RNA into capsids in order to infect more cells.

Transmission

After replication in the mouth and intestine, polio virus spreads through the body via the blood. Polio virus is contained in the Peyer’s patches of the small intestine. Transmission to the central nervous system and…

Read more

Find Another Essay On Polio Virus

The Poliomyelitis Vaccine Essay

1410 words – 6 pages

, wanted him to work with them on a vaccine for polio. [Therefore] He spent the next eight years in an effort to create such a vaccine”( Hecht np). At the end of his research, “Salk and team, with the support of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, began its first tests on humans of their killed-virus polio vaccine”(College of Physicians of Philadelphia np). They were tested on the resident children in institutions for the disabled

Poliomyelitis, a Devastating Virus Essay

2069 words – 9 pages

can just be an insignificant virus in some cases. The disease seems unimportant because these people do not know they have it and the disease does not affect their everyday living. Paralytic polio is more commonly known in the United States given that Franklin Delano Roosevelt was infected by polio, and was still president (Oshinsky, 2007, p. 293). Poliovirus was first discovered in the United States in the late 1800s or the beginning of the

Effects of Polio on Society

567 words – 2 pages

a worldwide vaccination campaign. The number of people suffering from polio around the world is now estimated to be around 35,000. But as many as 20 million people in the world are still suffering from the effects of the poliomyelitis virus. This virus causes paralysis and difficulties walking and breathing. But it can easily be eradicated because it is difficult to catch. It is only spread person to person contact and cannot live long outside

Jonas Salk

1172 words – 5 pages

crippling or paralyzing the individual. During the 1950s, parents became very worried about the safety of their children due to the widespread polio virus. Polio reached its peak in 1952 when it became responsible for the lives of over three thousand victims. However, Jonas Salk managed to lift the burden of fear from the worried individuals with his development of the polio vaccine. Little did Salk know, his vaccine would set the path for some of

Paralysis Epidemic of the 1950s: Poliomyelitis

1195 words – 5 pages

virus run its course and it would be passed through their feces like any other virus. Others weren’t so lucky, those with compromised immune systems were unable to fight off the virus, the lymph nodes would fail to protect the nervous system causing paralysis once it reached the spinal cord (Piddock, 2004). Poliomyelitis has since then been eliminated in the United States because of the polio vaccine that is given to newborn children.
Franklin D

Polio

556 words – 2 pages

cells lining the intestine and invades the lymphatic system and the lymph nodes swell around the intestines and neck. The symptoms may not appear at all or the person may have a fever and sore throat. In more severe cases, the patient has the beginning of neurological symptoms, indicating that the virus has infected the spinal cord. Acute Polio leaves the patient with permanent motor impairment ranging from mild muscular weakness to severe crippling

This essay is about Jonas Salk, so the title is "Jonas Salk."

1142 words – 5 pages

Polio is a viral infection of humans that occasionally spreads to the central nervous system. Once this happens, permanent muscle paralysis development often occurs. These cases only occur when the polio virus attacks and destroys the spinal cord and brain tissue that controls muscle activity. It’s transmitted through oral ingestion of virus present in the stool of infected individuals and saliva. Most people do not have symp-toms when they are

The History of Poliomyelitis

1834 words – 8 pages

, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 were created to prohibit discrimination based on disability. Thus, the grassroots efforts to find a solution for polio epidemic was the catalyst for the disability rights movement yielding landmark legislation that protects the rights of the disabled.

Poliomyelitis, once the most feared disease of the twentieth century, is a disease caused by the poliovirus. The virus infects and

Epidemiology in The Book Public Health Medicine for the Tropics by Lucas and Gilles

3497 words – 14 pages

Americas and, several countries in western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand (WHO, 2013).
Prevention and Control of TB in Nigeria
One of the primary ways of preventing TB is by identifying and treating infective cases.

POLIO
Polio is a highly infectious viral disease that mainly affects young children under the age of 5 years. The virus that can be transmitted via contaminated food and water can cause paralysis in

Viral Engineering

1157 words – 5 pages

On July 11, 2002 in the laboratories of the State University of New York the first synthetic virus was created. This virus is relatively small in the genetic sense of the word (only containing a few thousand base pairs) and is known today as the polio virus. Because of its minuscule genetic makeup this virus was the most likely candidate for this type of experimentation. After the complete synthetic virus was created the researchers injected it

Pathology and Epidemiology of Anterior Poliomyelitis

1188 words – 5 pages

Anterior Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease that attacks the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Poliomyelitis translates to grey spinal matter inflammation. Polio is caused by a picorna virus that enters the body through mucus membranes and then multiplies in the throat and being an acidophile, can survive well in the stomach and small intestine. When viremia occurs and persists, the virus will penetrate the capillary wall. Once this

Similar Essays

Polio Essay

1005 words – 4 pages

dangerous once contracted.Once people are informed as to what polio is the next question is how it is contracted. Poliovirus only infects humans. As stated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention it is very contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact. The virus lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through contact with the feces of an infected person and, though

Polio Eradicatio Pakisatn Essay

2622 words – 11 pages

INTRODUCTION
Polio is a highly infectious diseases caused by different strains of polio virus. Although, it can strike at any age, but mainly affects children under the age of 5 years (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 2010). According to WHO report, irreversible paralysis is the ultimate outcome in 1 of 200 cases. It attacks the nervous system and causes paralysis in a matter of hours. 5% to 10% of the polio inflicted patients die due to the

Polio Essay

1196 words – 5 pages

BIODIVERSITY ESSAY & CASE STUDYIn this world, there are over 12,000 diseases caused by either bacteria or viruses, and most of them are yet to be discovered. One of the dreadful diseases revealed is polio (which is shortened for poliomyelitis) (Ballard). The polio virus enters the body through the mouth, multiplies in the throat and intestine, and spreads through the blood to the central nervous system. Thus, the virus attacks the CNS, which

Paralysis Epidemic Of The 1950s: Poliomyelitis

1017 words – 5 pages

were able to let the virus run its course and it would be passed through their feces like any other virus. Others weren’t so lucky, those with compromised immune systems were unable to fight off the virus, the lymph nodes would fail to protect the nervous system causing paralysis once it reached the spinal cord (Piddock, 2004). Poliomyelitis has since then been eliminated in the United States because of the polio vaccine that is given to newborn

Other Popular Essays

Gimpel The Fool Essay

Women in the Work Force Essay

The Negative Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect

Opposing the Death Penalty Essay

Animal Testing Essay

Distance Learning Essay

Revival of the Irish Culture Essay

Wal-Mart is a Menace to Society

Get inspired and start your paper now!

Course Hero Logo
Course Hero Symbol

    • Find Study Resources

      • Main Menu
      • by School
      • by Subject
      • by Study Guides
      • by Book

        Literature Study Guides
        Infographics

      Get Instant Tutoring Help

      Earn by Contributing

      • Main Menu
      • Earn Free Access
      • Upload Documents
      • Refer Your Friends
      • Become a Tutor
      • Scholarships


  • Find
    Study Resources

    • by School

    • by Subject

    • by Study Guides

    • by Book

      • Literature Study Guides

      • Infographics



  • Get Instant
    Tutoring Help



  • Earn by
    Contributing

    • Earn Free Access

      Learn More >

    • Upload Documents

    • Refer Your Friends

    • Earn Money

    • Become a Tutor

    • Scholarships

      Learn More >

  • Are you an educator?

  • Log in

  • Sign up

Maize High School

BIOLOGY

BIOLOGY General

polio essay

polio essay – Polio Polio is an infection caused by a virus…


  • Maize High School


  • BIOLOGY General

  • Notes


  • 2

  • Click to edit the document details

Info icon

This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.



View Full Document

Right Arrow Icon

Polio
Polio is an infection caused by a virus that affects the whole body including muscles and
nerves. It is caused by the poliovirus (a small RNA virus that is spread through contact with the
mouth, nose and etc. The most common is when the virus attaches and infects intestinal cells and
then multiplies.
Polio is caused by a virus. Poliovirus uses two key mechanisms to evade the immune
system. First, it is capable of surviving the highly acidic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract,
allowing the virus to infect the host and spread throughout the body through the lymphatic
system. Second, because it can replicate very quickly, the virus overwhelms the host organs
before the immune system can respond. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus from the
family Picornaviridae and genus enterovirus.
It is spread in a oral-fecal (waste product) manner. It can also be caused by contact with
infected mucus, feces, or by contaminated food and water. The virus is found in saliva and feces
Image of page 1

Info icon
This preview
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.



View Full Document

Right Arrow Icon

Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview.

Sign up

to access the rest of the document.

  • Fall 11
  • Herrington

  • RNA,
    Poliomyelitis


  • Click to edit the document details

  • Facebook Icon
  • Twitter Icon
  • Email Icon
  • URL Icon
    Share this link with a friend:


    Copied!


Report



View Full Document

Right Arrow Icon

Most Popular Documents for BIOLOGY

  • 9 pages
    turner syndrome notes

    • turner syndrome notes
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY General

      Fall 2011

    turner syndrome notes

  • 6 pages
    ap lab transpiration report

    • ap lab transpiration report
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY General

      Fall 2011

    ap lab transpiration report

  • 3 pages
    diffusion and osmosis report

    • diffusion and osmosis report
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY General

      Fall 2011

    diffusion and osmosis report

  • 3 pages
    Experimental Method report

    • Experimental Method report
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY General

      Fall 2011

    Experimental Method report

  • 4 pages
    metabolism and cellular respiration chapter 8 and 9 notes

    • metabolism and cellular respiration chapter 8 and 9 notes
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY General

      Fall 2011

    metabolism and cellular respiration chapter 8 and 9 notes

  • 11 pages
    chapter 16 notes

    • chapter 16 notes
    • Maize High School
    • BIOLOGY Biology

      Fall 2011

    chapter 16 notes

View
more

  • Bookmarked

    [ document.course.dept_acro ] [ document.course.course_num ]

    [ document.title ]

    [ document.bookmarkTime ]

BIOLOGY General

polio essay

Viewing now

Interested in polio essay

?

Bookmark it to view later.

Bookmark polio essay.

Bookmarked!

No bookmarked documents.



Bookmark this doc

Recently Viewed

[ document.course.dept_acro ] [ document.course.course_num ]

[ document.title ]

satisfaction guaranteed seal

Study on the go

  • Download the iOS

  • Download the Android app

Other Related Materials

2 pages
Poliovirus

  • Poliovirus
  • Richland Community College
  • BIO 1408

    Spring 2012

Poliovirus

37 pages
5 Poliovirus

  • 5 Poliovirus
  • University of California, Riverside
  • BIOL 123

    Spring 2016

5 Poliovirus

29 pages
poliovirus-grp-8-pcl-ii-2

  • poliovirus-grp-8-pcl-ii-2
  • University of South Florida
  • BIO 1005

    Fall 2015

poliovirus-grp-8-pcl-ii-2

29 pages
Lecture-19 Polio(3)

  • Lecture-19 Polio(3)
  • University of Houston
  • BIOL 4355

    Fall 2015

Lecture-19 Polio(3)

4 pages
viro feb 8

  • viro feb 8
  • St. Johns University
  • BIOLOGY 2270

    Spring 2016

viro feb 8

53 pages
Polio

  • Polio
  • St. Johns University
  • BIOLOGY 2270

    Spring 2016

Polio

[ snackBarMessage ]